Precedents of dissolution and reinstatement of HoR

Kathmandu. In Nepal’s parliamentary history, the House of Representatives (HoR) has been dissolved six times while the government’s decision for HoR dissolution was rejected four times.

 

The Supreme Court (SC) reinstated the dissolved HoR three times and the HoR was reinstated through the people’s movement in 2006, according to the Federal Parliament Secretariat. 

 

First time in 1994, the then Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala had recommended for the dissolution of the HoR and his move was seconded by the then King Birendra on July 11, 1994.  The HoR meeting was summoned on July 10, 1994 to hold discussions on the government’s policy and programme but was rejected with 86-74 votes. 

 

As the government’s policy and programme was not approved, the then Prime Minister Koirala resigned from the post, announcing the date for general election on 13 November, 1994.

 

After the general election, parliamentary party leader of CPN (UML) Manmohan Adhikari was appointed the PM as the leader of the single largest party. 

 

With the unfolding political development then, PM Adhikari also recommended for the dissolution of HoR on 9 June, 1995. Then HoR was dissolved after four days from the King at the recommendation of the PM.  

 

However, the Supreme Court (SC) ordered reinstatement of the HoR on 28 August, 1995. 

 

Similarly, on 8 January, 1998, PM Surya Bahadur Thapa recommended for the HoR dissolution but the King refused to accept the recommendation and sought the Supreme Court’s views on HoR dissolution. During that time, recommendation was made for the HoR dissolution but was not implemented.  

 

Likewise, the then Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala dissolved the HoR on 15 January 1999 announcing the date for poll on 3 May, 1999. The king then seconded PM Koirala’s move to dissolve the HoR on the very day.

 

In the fourth time, the then Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba had on May 22, 2002 recommended for the dissolution of House of Representatives at a time when 22nd session of the Parliament in order to hold HoR meeting was called for May 23, 2002. 

 

The HoR was dissolved on the same day as per the recommendation made to set date for the election. 

 

The dissolved HoR was reinstated on April 24, 2006 mid night from the then King Gyanendra Shah under the pressure of the people’s movement and announced to hold HoR meeting on April 28, 2006. 

 

In the fifth time, Prime Minister KP Sharma Oli at the recommendation of the cabinet had on December 20, 2020, recommended before the President Bidya Devi Bhandari in order to dissolve the HoR. 

 

President Bhandari on the same day dissolved the HoR and announced the date for the elections in two phase—April 30 and May 10, 2021. But the Supreme Court on February 23, 2021 reinstated the HoR, saying the move to dissolve the HoR was unconstitutional. 

 

The SC had issued a mandamus to call House within 13 days. After the SC’s verdict, the HoR meeting was held on March 7.

 

In the sixth time, PM Oli had on May 22, 2021 again recommended before the President to dissolve the HoR  and announce the date for mid-term elections on November 12 and November 19.  The President dissolved the HoR and announced the date for the same as per the recommendation.  

 

Conducting the hearing on various writ petitions filed against it, the SC today said that the move of dissolving the HoR was unconstitutional, determining that it was against norms and values of the Constitution.  

Similarly, the SC also issued a mandamus order to make Nepali Congress President Sher Bahadur Deuba as the Prime Minister within two days and to call HoR meeting on July 18. 

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